Among the dietary challenges confronting vegetarians and vegans, perhaps none receives more attention than the eternal search for sufficient protein. For those on a plant-based diet, it can be hard enough to compete with the sheer density of protein provided by meat and dairy products, but throw in the need to combine complementary proteins and it can seem nearly impossible.
If you’re new to the concept of incomplete proteins, read on. Below we’ll discuss what they are, how they vary, and which to combine in order to make them complete.
Why It’s Harder for Vegetarians and Vegans to Get Enough Protein
A high-protein diet is prized among highly active people because protein enhances recovery and promotes performance. Eating protein after exercise also helps stimulate muscle growth and strength. And if you cut calories for weight loss, a high-protein snack can help stave off hunger and preserve lean muscle mass even as you shed pounds.
Unsurprisingly, vegetarians and vegans eat less protein than omnivores. And as a group, athletic individuals need more protein than the population at large. According to Krista Maguire, RD, CSSD, and nutrition manager for Openfit, “It’s common to recommend that vegan and vegetarian athletes eat 10 percent more protein than non-vegetarian athletes.”
That’s because plant proteins generally score lower in digestibility than their animal counterparts. Therefore, vegetarians and vegans must make smart protein choices to get enough nutrients to reach their dietary and fitness goals.
What Are Complementary Proteins?
Protein complementation is the practice of pairing foods that have different amino acid profiles so you don’t miss key aminos. Amino acids are like beads on a protein necklace: By stringing different numbers and types of beads, your body can create infinite possibilities of tissues, hormones, etc. It’s to your benefit to have as many beads lying around just in case you need them.
There are 20 different amino acids, but only nine are deemed essential (or indispensable) amino acids (EAA). That means your body can’t produce them, so they must be derived from food.
Foods with all nine EAAs score high in biological value and are deemed “complete proteins.” All animal proteins are complete proteins, but few plant proteins meet that criterion. Most plant-based proteins are incomplete, but you can make them complete by combining them. That’s complementation… complementarity… complementiasis — whatever you call it!
Complete vs. Incomplete Plant Proteins
You can count up plant examples of complete proteins on one finger: At present, soy is the only confirmed plant-based protein, despite common wisdom to the contrary. That makes it an ideal protein source for vegans, and explains its ubiquity as a meat substitute.
But you can get all of your EAAs from plant sources — it simply requires some dietary balance. Beans (excepting soy), grains, nuts, seeds, and vegetables are incomplete protein sources since they’re missing or don’t contain enough of one or more EAA, but together they can form complete protein profiles.
The handy chart below explains which amino acids are missing from which plant food and what to pair it with to get all nine EAAs. Rice and beans, for instance, is a classic example of protein complementation.
|Food||Missing Amino Acid||Complementary Protein Source|
|Beans||Methionine||Grains, nuts, seeds|
|Nuts & seeds||Lysine||Legumes|
|Vegetables||Methionine||Grains, nuts, seeds|
Should You Eat Complementary Proteins at the Same Time?
Simultaneous protein complementation was advocated in the past, but it’s now generally believed that you can get away with consuming them within the same day or so. Says Maguire, “Vegetarians and vegans don’t need to worry about complementing foods at every meal. Just shoot for a well-balanced diet.”
How to Combine Complementary Proteins
Even after reading this, the bean counters (see what we did there?) among us may still want to pair complementary proteins anyway. If it makes your protein accounting efforts any simpler, complementary protein pairings appear naturally in many traditional cuisines:
- Beans and rice
- Peanut butter and wheat bread
- Hummus and pita
- Tortilla chips and bean dip
- Oatmeal and almonds
- Barley with lentil soup
Clearly, there are lots of delicious complementary protein pairings. Here are three rules of thumb for those who are considering protein complementation:
1. Choose high-protein foods
If you’re following a calorie-restricted diet, it’s a good idea to choose more protein-dense plant-based foods — nuts, seeds, beans, tofu, etc. — to ensure you meet your daily needs without blowing your calorie budget. (You should still eat avocado, mushrooms, oatmeal, spinach, broccoli, and kale; they all contain protein, just not a lot.) You’re also getting fiber without loading up on calories. Win-win.
2. Eat a variety of plant-based proteins
The more varied your diet, the less important protein complementation becomes. With a tight budget, variety can be a struggle. In that case, pair a few high-protein foods whose amino acid profiles complement each other (see chart above).
3. Load up on complete proteins
Eggs, Greek yogurt, cottage cheese, and low-fat milk can boost protein intake for some vegetarians. Clearly they won’t work for vegans, who can instead take advantage of organic soy-based foods like tempeh, tofu, and edamame.